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A Quick Overview of Other Classical Civilizations and Their Technologies


With the majority of research focusing on the Greek and Roman civilizations some of the other advanced civilizations that existed are glossed over in a lot of history books. Some of these civilizations were as advanced in some ways as the Greco-Roman civilizations.


The civilizations I'm talking about are Mesopotamia, China, Peru, and Mesoamerica. Each of these civilizations had high points in there advancement and some of them never made as many advancements. 



One of the first known civilizations was Mesopotamia. They were one of the first to develop a written language (proto-cuneiform followed by cuneiform). This and many other advancements in technology helped pave the way for other civilizations. Mesopotamia developed many technologies including metal and copper working, glass and glass working, textile weaving, floodcontrol, water storage and irrigation. They are also considered to be one of the first civilizations to enter the Bronze Age. They used gold, copper, bronze and iron to decorate and make items, including armor and weapons. Some of the weapons developed were swords, daggers, spears, and maces.  Mesopotamia was conquered by the Romans then the Persians and then by the Muslims. It changed hands Multiple times between the Persians and Romans but once the Muslims took control in the 7th century B.C. it stayed under their control. Mesopotamia was located in what is now known as Iraq.



China has a very rich history.


 "The written history of China can be found as early as the Shang Dynasty (c. 1700–1046 BC), although ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (ca. 100 BC) and Bamboo Annals assert the existence of a Xia Dynasty before the Shang." from Wiki


Chinese technology was rather advanced compared to many other civilizations. The compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing were some of the most notable technological advancements developed by the Chinese. But they also developed many other things, such as matches, dry docks, cast iron, iron plows, horse collars, multi-tube seed drills, wheelbarrows, suspension bridges, parachutes, raised-relief maps, propellers, and quite a few more. China has had many conflicts in its borders and could take multiple books to cover them all so if you have an interest to delve deeper into the history of china I suggest looking into some books on the subject.



Let’s cross the ocean and take a look at some of the civilizations in the Americas.



Although there is a lot less research into the civilizations of Peru compared to other civilizations (Greek, Roman, Egyptian, etc.) the excavations continue and many lost technologies are being rediscovered. Much of what is discussed about the Peruvian people is the "connection" to alien technology (yes I said alien as in men from outer space) or the conquests of the Spanish. This makes it difficult (for an amateur)  to do any serious research into the technologies used by thus ancient civilization. Technologies they had were metal working, pottery, and knitting. Some metals used were gold, silver, copper and possibly bronze.


More to be added as I dig through the "alien assisted" civilization and can find more info about the technologies they used and developed to make their life easier.



The Olmec, Zapotec, and finally the Mayans are the civilizations typically being discussed when talking about Mesoamerican civilizations. The Olmec greatly influenced the Mayans with their art, ceremonial centers, and having an elite ruling class. The Zapotec left behind for future civilizations a hieroglyphic writing system, a calendar system  (based on the movements of the sun), and the style of urban centers used in many ancient American cities.  The Mayans took the advancements of the Olmec and Zapotec even further. They refined writing and the calendars, developed governments with laws and trials, Built pyramids, temples, palaces, and cities. Other technologies included pottery, games, tortillas, chocolate, dances, fabrics, embroidery and weaving. The amazing thing is the structures they built without using draft animals or the wheel.


Back to the other side of the world.



I never covered Egypt because I feel most people already know a lot about the ancient Egyptians.  What I would cover has already been gone over many times and most people could cover it better than I could anyways. Here is a link to Wiki that covers some of it.

There are many civilizations and technologies I did not cover but I hope I sparked your interest in doing some research into other civilizations you may not have thought about.

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