Eras‎ > ‎


Pre 1400

1347: Black Death ravages Europe for the first time.
1374: Death of Petrarch. 
1396: Creation of Chair of Greek in Florence: teacher Chrysoloras brings a copy of Ptolemy’s Geography
1397: Giovanni de Medici moves to Florence. 

1400 - 1450

1400: Burni: Panegyric to the City of Florence
1401: Ghiberti awarded commission to create doors for the baptistery of San Giovanni in Florence; Brunelleschi and Donatello travel to Rome; birth of painter Masaccio. 
1417 – 36: Brunelleschi works on dome of Florence Cathedral. 
1420: The newly united Papacy moves back to Rome. 
1423: Forsari become Doge in Venice. 
1429: Cosimo de Medici inherits the family bank and rises to great power in Florence. 
1432: Van Eycks: The Adoration of the Lamb
1435: Alberti: On Painting
1440: Valla uses humanist skills to expose Donation of Constantine as forgery. 
1444: Alberti: On the Family
1446: Death of Brunelleschi. 
1447: Pope Nicholas V appointed, he begins a major program of rebuilding. 
1450: Francesco Sforza takes power in Milan. 


1452: Birth of Leonardo da Vinci. 
1453: Ottoman conquest of Constantinople: many Greek thinkers and works travel westward; end of Hundred Years War: stability returns to north-west Europe. 
1454: The Gutenberg Bible published; print revolutionises European literacy. 
1459: Gozzoli: Adoration of the Magi
1465: Bellini and Mantegna: The Agony in the Garden 
1469: Lorenzo de Medici, “The Magnificent”, takes power in Florence; his rule is considered the high point of the Florentine Renaissance. 
1470: Malory: Morte d’Arthur
1471: Sixtus IV appointed Pope. Major building continues in Rome, including the Sistine Chapel. 
1474: Ficino: Platonic Theory
1480: Botticelli: Primavera
1483 Pico: 900 Treatises; he is declared a heretic but protected by the Medici. 
1485: Alberti: On Building. Italian architects travel to Russia to aid in rebuilding of Kremlin. 
1488: Portuguese sailors led by Bartolomeu Diaz round the Cape of Good Hope. 
1492: Buonarroti: Battle of Lapiths and Centaurs; Rodrigo Borgia appointed Pope, his rule is considered a reign of corruption; Columbus sails west; Behaim’s globe created. 
1494: Pacioli: Everything About Arithmetic, Geometry and Proportion
1494 – 95: Rule of Savonarola in Florence; he is burnt as a heretic; Italian Wars, France invade. 
1498: Leonardo da Vinci: Last Supper; Portuguese sailors led by Vasco de Gama reach India. 
1499: French conquer Milan, facilitating greater passage of Renaissance ideas into the France.
1500: Michelangelo: Pieta; Giorgine: Tempesta; Portuguese “discover” Brazil. 

1501 - 1550

1503: Pope Julius II appointed Pope; start of “Roman Golden Age”. 
1504: Michelangelo: David; Bosch: Garden of Earthly Delights
1505: Leonardo: Mona Lisa; Dürer travels to Italy. 
1506 – 1615: Work on St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. 
1508 – 12: Michelangelo paints roof of the Sistine Chapel. 
1509: Henry VIII succeeds to power in England. 
1511: Erasmus: Praise of Folly
1512: Erasmus: De Copia
1513: Machiavelli: The Prince
1515: Francis I takes power in France. 
1516: Eramus: New Testament; More: Utopia; Castiglione: Book of the Courtier; Charles V takes power in Spain, followed by his accession to the Holy Roman throne. 
1517: Start of the Reformation, heavily influenced by Humanist thinking. 
1519: Death of Leonardo de Vinci. 
1520: Süleyman “the Magnficent” takes power in the Ottoman Empire. 
1524: Raphael: Donation of Constantine
1525: Dürer: A Course in the Art of Measurement; Battle of Pavia between France and the Holy Roman Empire: end of French claims on Italy. 
1527: Sack of Rome by Imperial forces. 
1529: Ribeiro: World Map
1532: Rabelais: Pantagruel
1533: Holbein: The Ambassadors; Regiomontanus: On Triangles
1536: Paracelsus: Great Book of Surgery; Death of Erasmus. 
1541: Michelangelo: The Last Judgement
1543: Copernicus: Revolutions of the Celestial OrbitsDe Revolutionibus; Vesalius: On the Fabric of the Human Body
1544: Bandello: Novelle


1555: Labé: Euvres; Peace of Augsburg brings legal co-existence of Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire. 
1556: Tartaglia: A General Treatise on Numbers and Measurement; Agricola: De Re Metallica; Philip II takes power in Spain as Charles V abdicates. 
1558: Elizabeth I succeeds to the throne in England: start of the English “Golden Age”. 
1564: Death of Michelangelo. 
1567: Whitney: The Copy of a Letter
1569: Mercator: World Map
1570: Palladio: Four Books on Architecture; Ortelius: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum
1571: Battle of Lepanto. 
1572: Camõs: The Lusiads; St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre of Protestants in France. 
1580: Montaigne: Essays
1590: Spenser: The Faerie Queen
1603: Shakespeare: Hamlet
1605: Cervantes: Don Quixote